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Just Enough Documentation: an ideal web design process

A recent project reminded me how much I like the “just enough documentation” approach, and how inefficiently web design is often done.

Tasked with redesigning an Agile project management web application (to improve usability but not re-brand), I used the following process:

1. Paper sketching for a day or so to get my ideas straight about page and widget layout. This is the best time to explore wildly different alternatives, and make most of the big decisions.

2. Wireframes in Omnigraffle of the key pages. Since the visual style wasn’t changing, I could do high-fidelity wireframes closely resembling the final design. I work on a large format, so there’s ample space to overlay notes and state changes, as well as alternative ideas. The wireframes were shared with the client on a continuous basis for feedback.

Lots of things weren’t wireframed, including less critical pages, and many dynamic states.

3. I did only two pages in Photoshop, in which I did just enough to give me my final measurements, and the few image elements that needed cutting out. I refined designs a little from the wireframes, but most of this I left to the next stage. The wireframes and this stage together took about 5 days.

4. HTML and CSS. Because in my design I was switching from a fixed-width layout to a liquid layout, you can only really appraise the design once you implement it, so it was imperative to get to this stage as quickly as possible. It is also far, far more efficient to fine-tune margins, typography and colours in CSS than in Photoshop. Furthermore, I could quickly mock up most dynamic interactions – of which this app has plenty – in jQuery (which I had not used before but was ridiculously easy to pick up.) How much more effective than doing so in wireframes, where you (and the client) have to imagine how it will “feel” to the user and you can never be sure whether it will work?

By far the bulk of my time – about 2 weeks – was spent working in HTML and CSS. Pages or elements that weren’t wireframed were much quicker to design directly as HTML and CSS, without the duplication of effort. New ideas inevitably arise during this stage, and are immediately incorporated. I occasionally went back to paper or Photoshop or Omnigraffle to work out small details, but there was no need to keep those design documents “up to date” – they had served their purpose. The client was able to appraise the designs exactly as it renders in the browser, and the resulting artifact was also ready to be integrated into their back-end.

Not only could the client and I be confident about how the design will actually look once implemented, I could also ensure that accessibility measures were built in, as well as the ability for it to be easily re-skinned. (As the app is sometimes white-labelled.)


If I reflect on the design process on many past projects, most seem ridiculously inefficient. Where UX designers had to exhaustively wireframe every single page and every possible interaction, with complex state diagrams for all the dynamic elements. And to keep the wireframes up to date throughout the course of the project. Where designers had to mock up dozens of pages in Photoshop, with everything finalised to the last pixel (but usually omitting hover effects and never considering liquid layout or browser differences). All the foregoing needing to be done before a client will sign it off and a single line of markup can be written. The front-end developer reduced to an automaton incapable of taste or decisions, who just had to implement the Photoshop mockups to the pixel, and all interactions exactly as specified in the wireframes. It was usually impossible to refine aspects of design or interaction at this stage (everything having been signed off), let alone adding new ideas, despite it being the most fluid.

Obviously this won’t suit all projects or clients. For example, I had the advantage of not starting from scratch, and a client who was prepared to work in this way. It was a relatively small project with few stakeholders. On some projects there may be good reasons for an exhaustively documented waterfall process. But very often in my experience it was simply because it was the only way the agency knew how to work, due to the excessive compartmentalisation of skills, and an inadequate understanding of the meaning of web design. And my, what a lot of time and money it wastes.